The Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg, which is one of the city's top tourist attractions, gives a comprehensive, albeit confusing, account of apartheid.
The Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg's exhibits - both temporary and permanent, are shown in a timeline that detail the intricacy of race relations and the related events that lead up to the first democratic elections in 1994 - and beyond!
THE APARTHEID MUSEUM TEMPORARY EXHIBITION
The present temporary exhibition is on the life of Nelson Mandela.
There's a huge amount of information, which in itself, could, and should, be a stand-alone museum.
THE APARTHEID MUSEUM PERMANENT EXHIBITIONS
The 21 permanent exhibitions flow from one display into the next, although the layout is confusing, and unless you are very familiar with the historical background, the facts can be overwhelming to digest.
There's a huge amount to read and lots of videos to watch.
I've been a number of times, and am still engrosed, but be prepared to spend a few hours at least, trying to understand apartheid!
The Pillars of the Constitution
The seven pillars, visible when approaching the Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg, each represent what the new South African constitution is based on democracy, reconciliation, equality, diversity, responsibility, freedom and respect.
When buying your ticket, you're classified according to a specific race, and use the entrance gate according to your racial classification - 'white', 'coloured', 'Asian' or 'native'!
Once through the entrance gate, you walk up a ramp with life size photos of some of the residents of Johannesburg, with their children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren.
At the top of the ramp, with a view of Johannesburg's skyline, you walk down the stairway with the "temporary" Nelson Mandela exhibition on your left and the permanent museum display on your right.
Once through the glass doors, you're confronted with the reality of racial Segregation.
Segregation was notably absent before 1897 - the date when the first steps were taken to separate the races, but later became the cornerstone on which apartheid was built.
Large photographic murals depict the forced removals that were the nucleus of Apartheid, and why, despite segregation already being in place, it was necessary for politicians to legislate for apartheid.
Some of the political groups that resisted this racial seperation, are also discussed here.
Turn to Violence
The 'Turn to Violence' display shows how organised resistance started in 1943, but finally turned violent, when on Monday 21st March 1960 in Sharpeville, during a demonstration against the pass laws, 69 protesters were killed and hundreds injured, when police opened fire.
What became known as the Sharpeville Massacre, signaled the start of armed resistance in South Africa.
A well known quote by Nelson Mandela, on a wall at the entrance to the Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg
Life Under Apartheid
Photographs by Ernest Cole, who is widely recognised as South Africa's first black freelance photographer, depict the harsh conditions of 'Life Under Apartheid'.
Ernest Cole died in poverty, in exile, in New York in February 1990 - anonymous and homeless.
South Africa at the time had unparalleled economic growth, but the black community suffered more and more under oppressive apartheid laws.
South Africa consists of a number of ethnic groups, and the Nationalist Government divided the country along tribal lines, with the intention that each ethnic group would be removed into their own tribal Homeland.
The ten planned homelands, made up only 13% of the total area of South Africa.
Having to move to these "independent states", would rid the white areas of blacks, and deny these blacks their political rights in a white South Africa.
The first to receive its "independence", and recognised as a soveirgn state (only by South Africa), was the Transkei - on 26th October 1976.
The Black Consciousness Movement
The leadership of the ANC had been annihilated during the 1960s, and with most of them behind bars, a social movement of political consciousness, 'the Black Consciousness Movement', that rejected the values of whites, and aimed at boosting black self-worth, was started by a number of number of young university students.
Stephen Bantu Biko was chosen as their leader.
They constantly confronted the Government, and this brought them into conflict with the security police.
Key members were banned and Steve Biko, aged 30, was murdered on 12th September 1977, whilst in police custody.
South Africa enforced the death penalty, and had one of the highest execution rates in the world during the fight against apartheid.
Political Executions resulted in 131 people being executed for various terrorism crimes, and a number tortured to death - whilst in police custody, although the police claimed they committed suicide.
16th June 1976 : The Soweto Uprising
On 16th June 1976, 20,000 school children protested against apartheid and their second class status, by marching through Soweto.
The unrest spread to the rest of the country, and it became the single biggest challenge to the apartheid system.
The uprising was eventually crushed, but it became a turning point in the liberation of South Africa, and the beginning of the end for apartheid.
Hundreds of civil organizations and anti-apartheid groups that joined forces to form the United Democratic Front, were later joined by the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), in their support of the ANC and a democratic South Africa.
The Total Onslaught
Despite this Total Onslaught, the Government continually enforced apartheid - but at the same time started reform.
Roots of Compromise
The Roots of Compromise took hold in 1987, when a delegation of top businessmen secretly met the exiled ANC in Dakar, and in 1988, when Nelson Mandela, whilst still in prison, invited the Government to discuss the dismantling of apartheid with the ANC.
In August 1989, PW Botha, the staunchly conservative, uncompromising President of South Africa, suffered a stroke and was replaced by F W de Klerk.
Shortly after assuming the party leadership, FW de Klerk called for negotiations for a democratic South Africa and in February 1990, lifted the ban on the African National Congress (ANC) and the Communist Party of South Africa and released all political prisoners the last of whom was Nelson Mandela.
Nelson Mandela's Release
was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11th February 1990, after 27 years in prison.
You unite with descendents of early Johannesburg residents when walking up the ramp towards
the entrance of the Apartheid Museum
On the Brink
The country teetered 'On the Brink' of uncertainty after the unbanning of the political organizations and Nelson Mandela's release, with a negotiated way forward between two arch enemies!
The National Peace Accord and the Bill of Rights
The 'National Peace Accord and Bill of Rights' set out a common purpose to bring an end to political violence and to set out the codes of conduct, procedures and mechanisms to achieve this goal, and the government and the ANC met on a number of occasions to remove obstacles that both parties felt stood in the way of a negotiated settlement.
Members of twenty-seven political organisations, homeland and national government signed the National Peace Accord of 14 September 1991, which opened the way for the negotiations for the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA).
27th April 1994 Election
The '27th April 1994 Election' marked the first opportunity for non-whites to cast their vote in a national election.
The results of the peaceful election, saw the ANC win 63% of the vote, the National Party 20% and the IFP 11%.
These parties, according to the CODESA negotiations, formed the Government of National Unity.
The South African Truth and Reconcilliation Commission
'The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)', was set up by the Government of National Unity, and chaired by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, to restore justice to those who were identified as victims of gross human rights violations between 1960 and 1994.
Perpetrators of violence could also give testimony and request amnesty from both civil and criminal prosecution.
Miracle and Beyond
History was made, when for the first time, power was handed down from a minority to a majority government, without bloodshed or external force.
Using newspaper cuttings and television interviews, 'The Miracle and Beyond' shows the hopes and fears of South Africans, and allows you to add your own opinion via a recording booth.
The New Constitution
The core values of 'The New Constitution' - the new flag and the National Anthem - "Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika", are on display.
A Place of Healing
By visiting the Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg as 'A Place of Healing', you not only witness some of mans most evil deeds, but also the resilience of the human spirit to persevere and overcome.
The bushveld garden, once out of the museum, is a place to reflect on both the past, and the future!
These painted sticks at the Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg each represent a different speech by Nelson Mandela
Opened in 2001, the Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg is a powerful, and often disturbing, interactive exhibit that graphically explains the cause, the implementation and the inevitable collapse of apartheid.
As apartheid was based on a Christian doctrine, gambling was not allowed in South Africa under the Nationalist (Apartheid) Government.
When the ANC came to power in 1994, a condition of being granted a casino license, was the stipulation that bidders needed to show how they would attract tourists, create jobs and grow the economy.
The consortium that was awarded a license for the Gold Reef City Casino, committed to build a museum.
The building itself is worthy of a place in a museum!
The exterior has been designed to be part of the landsacape, and the interior space and form, is part of, and adds to, the exhibits.
Leading up to the entrance are the symbolic outside walls of rough steel gabions filled with rock; the grass covered roof, with a backdrop of the Johannesburg skyline at the top of the entrance ramp; and finally the stairway that drops down to the entrance of the museum!
The interior design has differing ceiling heights with few windows, as well as a number of small and cramped display areas.
Similar in design to a number of new museums, this building, like Apartheid, isn't the norm!
Its worth spending a while in the peaceful geometrically landscaped garden, once out of the museum!
Rear view of 'World on its Hind Legs', a fractured sculpture by William Kentridge and Gerhard Marx, which was previously on display in the gardens of the Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg.
The museum building is in the background
The Apartheid Museum in Johannesburg
Cnr Northern Parkway and Gold Reef Roads, Ormonde, Johannesburg
Apartheid Museum website